There are many different types of glass with different chemical and physical properties, by adjusting the chemical compositions may be conceived of glass to meet any requirement.
Most types that we know in our daily life, it is in the form of bottles and jars, flat glass for windows, glass and utensils or more specialized applications such as fire-resistant or refractory, optical, protection against risks that may involve theft and vandalism to rays X or gamma, etc.
The criteria we can use to divide the types of glass can be enough. Eg the user base, its chemical composition or its technical characteristics. For economy of space and therefore the interest covers our text we will develop the types of glass for decorative use and meet the essential chemical ingredients and characteristics they impart.
The main ingredient is sand. Adding other metals and chemicals differentiate technical characteristics, appearance or fields of use.
The main types used in the decoration - based chemical composition; are:
The Greek term could be common glass.
Most glasses we know, belong to this family. Generally they have similar chemical compositions:
70% - 74% SiO2 (silicon dioxide) 12% - 16% Na2O (sodium oxide) 5% - 11% CaO (calcium oxide) 1% - 3% MgO (magnesium oxide) 1% - 3% Al2O3 (aluminum oxide)
Some types of glass belonging to the same family are:
Is the most common type of glass and is found anywhere eg In windows.The float glass is usually colorless, allowing free impart light, that is, which makes it ideal for windows and many other uses. Additional chemicals produce different colors of glass, like green, blue or brown. The international designation is Float ratio of the mode of production.
Today, recycled glass, known as cullet, is used to make new glass. Its use has many benefits for the environment by reducing the quarries, contributed to the conserved landscape, and because cullet melts more easily, saves energy and reduces emissions bursts.
Such glass is used in the production of bottles and glasses.
Our laboratory use this kind of glass in several applications. We have the ability to paint it with colors in powder form or encase in its surface colored glasses (in their mass). Also suitable temperatures and molds shapes in the form and level acquires three-dimensional reality and made lamp, decoration mirror, etc.
Spectacles with a chemical composition within the limits of the type soda-lime but with additional coloring mass of glass. They are produced by many companies and be divided into those with specific COE (or compatible) and simple colored glass.
The lab use glasses with COE 83 ± 2, compatible with Float.
Coefficient of Expansion (what is?)
It is the expansion coefficient, which describes how expanded-expandable material for every degree rise in temperature. In the world of glass means that two different crystals can encased with high temperatures, without breaking during the cooling process or after an indeterminate time. A prerequisite for doing this is the COE of two glasses have a difference of about ± 2 degrees only.
The Greek term is Pyrex. Most of us are more familiar with this type of glass in the form of crockery and other utensils refractory, better known under the trademark Pyrex.
Borosilicate glass (or sodium borosilicate glass) is made mainly of silica (70-80%) and boric oxide (7-13%) with lesser amounts of alkalis (oxides of sodium and potassium), and aluminum oxide. Additional chemicals produce different colors of glass in a wide range, which are characterized by their purity
This type of glass has a relatively low alkali content and, therefore, has excellent chemical resistance and thermal shock resistance - which means that it breaks when the temperature changes quickly.
As a result of these properties, this glass is widely used throughout the chemical industry, the pharmaceutical sector, laboratory devices, cartridges and other pharmaceutical containers, various high intensity lighting applications, glass fibers for textile and strengthening construction resins and polyester-and for utensils resistant to common household oven and microwave ovens.
Our laboratory uses Boro (abbreviation of borosilicate) with COE 33 ± 2 which is characterized by its purity of color and durability. Especially in applications with a torch (lampworking) for making decorative for Christmas, small sculptures and beads for jewelry.
The Greek term could be the well-known crystal. Used for a wide variety of decorative items. Its chemical composition differs as to the content of lead oxide which replaces the calcium oxide and potassium oxide which can replace most of the oxides of sodium, etc. oxides.
The lead crystal contains at least 30% lead oxide (PbO), but any glass containing at least 24% PbO can be described as a crystal. Glasses that contain less than 24% PbO, known simply as glass or plain glass. The lead contained in the chemical structure of glass and so there is no risk to human health, can not be detached and someone comes in contact with it.
The crystal has a high refractive index to give it the glow that we know a relatively soft surface, so that it is easy to processed by cutting or etching, which brings out the sparkle of the crystals makes them popular, bottles, vases, luxury utensils and other decorative objects.
Glass with even higher lead oxide contents (e.g. 65%) may be used as radiation shielding due to the ability of lead to absorb gamma rays and other forms of harmful radiation.