History of Glass.
The appearance and development of glass follows the same pattern as that of human civilization. Starts from Mesopotamia, passes in Egypt and the coast of Africa, from there to Greece, the Romans, Southern Europe, and then in Central Europe, to spread the world. Looking at another source culture, Eastern, glass finds in China date back later in the 16th century BC
The first human contact with the glass is considered, the use of natural glass formed as a cutting tool and according to archaeological finds it is around 5,000 BC The findings are blades or scrapers from obsidian. Volcanic rock, black, pretty hard and chemically similar to glass. Depending on the region derived changing the characteristics of the face can look like the Valsati in which however has no affinity. The name comes from the Roman explorer Obsidian.
The oldest finds of man made of glass coming from 3,500 BC and glass beads whose construction is even today. For many centuries, the glass beads are a type of currency (swap can be made between people) in areas around the Mediterranean. At the same time they make their appearance the first objects of glass, such as vases and glasses. The characteristics of these first objects do not resemble the glass as we know it today, is opaque and have color shades depending on the construction site. They come from Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The oldest items from Greece come from Mikines dating about 1600 to 1500 BC
The first 'recipe' glass manufacturing is located in the library of the Assyrian king Asournasirpal (884-859 BC)
The art of glass-blowing, the revolution for making utilitarian objects, first appear in area of Syria about the 1st century BC
The first written mention of how the invention of the glass is the work of the Roman historian minus (23-79 BC). Legend says: The discovery was made accidentally by Phoenician traders while traveling along the coast of Africa. The travels frequently stopped and nights at the coast. Probably the ship carrying including soda rather as a byproduct salt load. They gathered around the fire and they used packets from the load to define the corner and keep as much as they fire during the night. In the morning when no fire was extinguished, where packages were touching the sand had formed an amorphous glass like material from accidental mix of soda - sand - and limestone (basic raw materials for glass) that are easily located in the coast, from the decomposition shellfish organisms.
The Romans considered the first to use the glass in windows and that first glass produced in flat form, according to findings from the city of Pompoiias. With the breakup of the Empire Roman know-how is transferred to the two new states. With the fall of Constantinople stops further development in Byzantium and Italy created conditions that help make a huge technological leap in glassmaking in the 12th AD century.
The melting temperature of the raw materials for the creation of the glass is more than 1,200. The kilns were to remain in operation (except the period of their maintenance) and this was a big risk for a city built by wooden Buildings.So they transfer all glassworks in Venice Murano Island is made by ordinance, to avoid possible spread of fire . The creation of trade unions at the same time, with strict rules and closed structure prevents the transmission of knowledge outside the island. In this closed environment grows for centuries glassmaking techniques and evolve for the construction of unique objects from glass. The export value of glass objects arm with power the unions and splendor unique and many ruff rules eg Prohibited marriage with persons not belonging to union, not allowed to move off the island and punishment in case of knowledge transfer to third parties is death. Even today only objects made in area of Murano can be marked "Vetro Artistico Murano", protected designation of origin from the EU.
Result of exclusive glass origin only from Venice and therefore high cost, another region of central europe with easy access to the main raw material - sand - begins slowly - slowly develops to glass. And this is the Bohemia and the surrounding areas. This is much later in the 17th century, and the main difference with the glass of Venice is a different color - green tones - and of course the design of objects. Later begins to break the closed circuit in unions are now knowledge and techniques travels between the two large glassworks centers. The next time the glassworks is growing in the rest of Europe, France, Austria etc.
Today glass manufacturing plants exist around the world, the types of glass that have been developed can be perfectly Particular analogs use. Glass for artistic use, there is significant production in America, is lower in companies based in Europe and sporadically production mainly for local use, in China and other-developing countries. In Greece some companies producing bottles and glasses, the main production unit was the company Chemical products and Fertilizers "A.E.E.X.Π." ιν Drapetsona. Founded in 1909, including producing glass for architectural use, closed in 1999.
Links about Murano island history
Documentary on Youtube for the island of Murano : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mirXV9rV33M